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老人と海 解説

老人と海の解説を載せております。

第一章

「老人と海」のThe old man ですが、今まで老人と訳されてきました。

しかしOld man には親方とか、親父さんとかの意味もあるので、本稿では親しみを出すために爺様と訳しました。

サンチャゴ爺様です。手伝いをしているBoyは少年と訳すべきではありません。映画でも12,3才の子供に描かれていますが、実はメジャーリーガーのディックシスラーの父は彼の年にはすでのメジャーで活躍していたとBoyはOld manに言っているのですから、少なくてもBoyは日本の高校生野球選手位な年のはずです。だから本稿ではBoyを少年ではなく若い衆と訳しました、和歌山の漁師たちは「若いし」と発音します。

The Snow of Kilimanjaroでもboys は出てきますが、少年ではなく、雑用係の人々です。

日本でも若い者はかならず若年者をさすのではなく身分を表す言葉です。

ハバナあたりの漁師が標準語を話さないように漁師には漁師の言葉を話さすべきです。本稿では和歌山の尾上徹名人をサンチャゴ爺様に見立てて、登場人物には和歌山の漁師言葉を使わせます。

漁師のサンチャゴはSkiffに乗って漁をします。Skiffは漕ぐことも帆走することも出来る小船です。

The old man was thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck. The brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer the sun brings from its reflection on the tropic sea were on his cheeks. The blotches ran well down the sides of his face and his hands had the deep-creased scars from handling heavy fish on the cords. But none of these scars were fresh. They were as old as erosions in a fishless desert.

爺様の容貌ですが痩せていることは確かなのですが、両頬が良質な皮膚癌に侵されているとかされていると原文には書いてあります。

The brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer the sun brings from its reflection ,,,,

しかし病人では漁ができませんからこれは単なる頬の染みではないかと思ってしまいますが、ヘミングウェイ自身この質問にはっきり良質な皮膚癌だと答えています。

つまりヘミングウェイに取って、良質な皮膚癌とはおそらく癌にはなっていないシミを指すのではないかと思われます。

その爺様を若いしの両親はsalaoになってしまったと言っていますが。スペイン語にsalaoと言う言葉はありません。Sala doとは南米で言うらしいから、この不幸とかの悪い意味をハバナの漁師はそう訛るのかもしてません。

しかし若いしは爺様の本を離れず、色々世話をしたりTerraceでビールを奢ったりします。

さてそのTerrace とは古いフランス語で盛り土を意味しますがここでは、海岸を一望できるテラスと言う名前のレストランです。本稿ではただテラスとします。爺様も若いしもベースボールが大好きで米国大リーグのファンです。それは当時のキューバが事実上アメリカの植民地だったことに関係しているからだと思われます。

キューバの歴史

キューバ独立と米国支配。

キューバは事実上のアメリカに支配されていたので、米国からの観光客は数多く、シーズンオフのメジャーリーグ関係者も数多く頻繁に当地を訪れています。

そのなかに爺様のお気に入りジョーデマジオもいました。

“I’ll be back when I have the sardines. I’ll keep yours and mine together on ice and we can share them in the morning. When I come back you can tell me about the baseball.”

“The Yankees cannot lose.”

“But I fear the Indians of Cleveland.”

“Have faith in the Yankees my son. Think of the great DiMaggio.”

“I fear both the Tigers of Detroit and the Indians of Cleveland.”

“Be careful or you will fear even the Reds of Cincinnati and the White Sox of Chicago.”

“You study it and tell me when I come back.”

二人の会話には様々なメジャーリーグの監督や選手が出てきますが、そのなかでディックシスラーの父の事を若いしがいっています。息子のディックもオールスターに出場した有名選手ですが、父親のハロルドはディマジオに勝るとも劣らない大選手です。

このようにヘミングウェイはスポーツが大好きです。文章の中にもフットボールやベースボールを模したような表現がありますので、その都度解説させていただきます。

 

第二章

“What do you have to eat?” the boy asked.

“A pot of yellow rice with fish. Do you want some?”

“No. I will eat at home. Do you want me to make the fire?”

“No. I will make it later on. Or I may eat the rice cold.”

“May I take the cast net?”

“Of course.”

There was no cast net and the boy remembered when they had sold it. But they went through this fiction every day. There was no pot of yellow rice and fish and the boy knew this too.

爺様は若い時分に比べれば、自分でも驚くほどに謙虚で穏やかな人間になっていたとはいえ、まだまだ強がりです。売ってしまった投網や鍋にイエローライスが残っているような見栄を張ります。イエローライスとは米の種類ではなく、サフランで黄色く炊き上げる米の事をいいます。つまり魚を具にしたパエリヤです。

 

The boy had brought them in a two-decker metal container from the Terrace. The two sets of knives and forks and spoons were in his pocket with a paper napkin wrapped around each set.

“Who gave this to you?”

“Martin. The owner.”

“I must thank him.”

“I thanked him already,” the boy said. “You don’t need to thank him.”

若いしは爺様の家に食べ物がないことを知り、内緒でテラスに行って、夕飯やビールを買ってきました。爺様が食べ物をくれたことになっている。テラスの主人に礼をすると言う事にたいして、礼をされては困る若いしは、自分が礼を言ったので、もう言わないでくれと言います。

このような配慮をする若いしが子供で有るはずがありません。灯りもない暗い小屋での食事の後若いしは去り、爺様は眠って、アフリカの夢を見ます。夢の中でタールやマイハダの匂いがするとありますが、マイハダとは木造船の板の間を防水のため塞ぐ植物の繊維です。サイザルの繊維が一般的です。

http://navgunschl.sblo.jp/article/53161095.html

桜と錨の気ままなブログ「木甲板の話し」より。

The old man went out the door and the boy came after him. He was sleepy and the old man put his arm across his shoulders and said, “I am sorry.”

Qué va,” the boy said. “It is what a man must do.”

アフリカの夢を見ながら目覚めた爺様は若いしを起こしに行きます。爺様は起こしたことを「すまんのう」と言いますが、若いしは Que va「ケバ」と応えます。これは「とんでもない」と言う意味ですので、和歌山の漁師は「とつけもない」

とか「めっそうもない」と言うはずです。

第三章

Before it was really light he had his baits out and was drifting with the current. One bait was down forty fathoms. The second was at seventy-five and the third and fourth were down in the blue water at one hundred and one hundred and twenty-five fathoms. Each bait hung head down with the shank of the hook inside the bait fish, tied and sewed solid and all the projecting part of the hook, the curve and the point, was covered with fresh sardines. Each sardine was hooked through both eyes so that they made a half-garland on the projecting steel. There was no part of the hook that a great fish could feel which was not sweet smelling and good tasting.

そうしてまだ暗いうちに若いしは爺様を冲に送り出し、爺様は一人で漁場に向います。

早朝の海にはトビウオが飛び、それを追って色々な鳥が飛び交います。

ここではクロアジサシウミツバメを見ながら爺様はスペインカタロニア製の釣綱を垂らす。今回の漁では大カジキを物にしようと思っているので、鉛筆より太い綱にマグロやヒラマサやブリを餌魚にして、釣り針にはイワシを房掛けにして金属部分を隠す。

Fathom  尋と訳す。手を広げた大きさだが、180センチメートルより広い。二本も英米も漁師は他の人より、手が長く胸も広いのかもしれない。

舟から綱を垂らすのだが、竿を使わない。生木に綱を掛けるのだが、それは魚が引くと生木が折れて漁師に引きを伝えるためだけだ。

40尋

75尋

100尋

120尋

綱の深さを変えているのは、カジキがどの水深にいても餌を見つけることができるようにです。

Just then he saw a man-of-war bird with his long black wings circling in the sky ahead of him. He made a quick drop, slanting down on his back-swept wings, and then circled again.

“He’s got something,” the old man said aloud. “He’s not just looking.”

He rowed slowly and steadily toward where the bird was circling. He did not hurry and he kept his lines straight up and down. But he crowded the current a little so that he was still fishing correctly though faster than he would have fished if he was not trying to use the bird.

The bird went higher in the air and circled again, his wings motionless. Then he dove suddenly and the old man saw flying fish spurt out of the water and sail desperately over the surface.

爺様は目がいいので、遠方の鳥の群れを頼って魚の居場所を見つけられます。彼はまず、グンカンドリの群れを見つけました。

爺様は群れに向って漕ぎますが、それでも他の漁師のように、垂らした綱を舟の後方に棚引かせたりはしません。彼はうまく潮の流れに舟を載せて、餌を垂直に垂らす名人技ができるのです。But he crowded the current a littleつまり流れに便乗して舟を漕いで行くのです。

ヘミングウェイはcrowd を動詞としてつかって、人ごみに紛れるような意味合いをだしています。爺様はシイ羅を釣るために、カジキ用の綱よりは細い綱を用意して、艫と舳にから投げ入れます。

As he watched the bird dipped again slanting his wings for the dive and then swinging them wildly and ineffectually as he followed the flying fish. The old man could see the slight bulge in the water that the big dolphin raised as they followed the escaping fish. The dolphin were cutting through the water below the flight of the fish and would be in the water, driving at speed, when the fish dropped. It is a big school of dolphin, he thought. They are wide spread and the flying fish have little chance. The bird has no chance. The flying fish are too big for him and they go too fast.

群れの下ではシイラに襲われているトビウオが飛び散っています。シイラはトビウオを捕食するため、トビウオの着地点に向って進みます。

これはワイトレシーバーがパスされたボールの着地点に向って突進するイメージです。シイラは着実にトビウオをキャッチするでしょうからトビウオには逃げるチャンスが殆どありません。又、グンカンドリにはトビウオは大きすぎて捕食のチャンスはありません。

そしてシイラの群れ自体も遠ざかって結局爺様もチャンスを逃しました。

海にはガルフウィードとよも呼ばれる、サーガッソ(ホンダワラ)とカツオノエボシが浮かぶだけです。

From where he swung lightly against his oars he looked down into the water and saw the tiny fish that were coloured like the trailing filaments and swam between them and under the small shade the bubble made as it drifted. They were immune to its poison. But men were not and when some of the filaments would catch on a line and rest there slimy and purple while the old man was working a fish, he would have welts and sores on his arms and hands of the sort that poison ivy or poison oak can give. But these poisonings from the agua mala came quickly and struck like a whiplash.

The iridescent bubbles were beautiful. But they were the falsest thing in the sea and the old man loved to see the big sea turtles eating them. The turtles saw them, approached them from the front, then shut their eyes so they were completely carapaced and ate them filaments and all. The old man loved to see the turtles eat them and he loved to walk on them on the beach after a storm and hear them pop when he stepped on them with the horny soles of his feet.

He loved green turtles and hawks-bills with their elegance and speed and their great value and he had a friendly contempt for the huge, stupid loggerheads, yellow in their armour-plating, strange in their love-making, and happily eating the Portuguese men-of-war with their eyes shut.

爺様はその海の娼婦ともいうべき、カツオノエボシが海岸に打ち上げられているのを踏んで破裂さすのが大好きです。そして亀がカツオの烏帽子を食べるのを見るのも好きでした。

色々な亀がいますが、爺様は総じて亀が好きです。タイマイアオウミガメ

“Albacore,” he said aloud. “He’ll make a beautiful bait. He’ll weigh ten pounds.”

He did not remember when he had first started to talk aloud when he was by himself. He had sung when he was by himself in the old days and he had sung at night sometimes when he was alone steering on his watch in the smacks or in the turtle boats. He had probably started to talk aloud, when alone, when the boy had left. But he did not remember. When he and the boy fished together they usually spoke only when it was necessary. They talked at night or when they were storm-bound by bad weather. It was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at sea and the old man had always considered it so and respected it. But now he said his thoughts aloud many times since there was no one that they could annoy.

“If the others heard me talking out loud they would think that I am crazy,” he said aloud. “But since I am not crazy, I do not care. And the rich have radios to talk to them in their boats and to bring them the baseball.”

Now is no time to think of baseball, he thought. Now is the time to think of only one thing. That which I was born for. There might be a big one around that school, he thought. I picked up only a straggler from the albacore that were feeding. But they are working far out and fast. Everything that shows on the surface today travels very fast and to the north-east. Can that be the time of day? Or is it some sign of weather that I do not know?

He could not see the green of the shore now but only the tops of the blue hills that showed white as though they were snow-capped and the clouds that looked like high snow mountains above them. The sea was very dark and the light made prisms in the water. The myriad flecks of the plankton were annulled now by the high sun and it was only the great deep prisms in the blue water that the old man saw now with his lines going straight down into the water that was a mile deep.

The tuna, the fishermen called all the fish of that species tuna and only distinguished among them by their proper names when they came to sell them or to trade them for baits, were down again. The sun was hot now and the old man felt it on the back of his neck and felt the sweat trickle down his back as he rowed.

I could just drift, he thought, and sleep and put a bight of line around my toe to wake me. But today is eighty-five days and I should fish the day well.

Just then, watching his lines, he saw one of the projecting green sticks dip sharply.

そんなことを思っているとまた鳥が旋回し始めました。こんどはマグロが飛び跳ねています。

爺様はきっとマグロが小魚を追いこんでいるのだろうと思っていると、はたして艫の綱にビンナガマグロが掛かりました。もしかしてこのビンナガを餌に狙って大カジキがくるかもしれないと爺様は思いましたが、マグロの群れは遥か北東に去って行ってしまいました。爺様は鳥を目がけて漁をするのを諦めて、漕ぐのを止めて寝てしまうかどうか迷いました。すると舳の方で綱が掛けてあった生木が激しく曲がって水に浸かったのです。

第四章

“Yes,” he said. “Yes,” and shipped his oars without bumping the boat. He reached out for the line and held it softly between the thumb and forefinger of his right hand. He felt no strain nor weight and he held the line lightly. Then it came again. This time it was a tentative pull, not solid nor heavy, and he knew exactly what it was. One hundred fathoms down a marlin was eating the sardines that covered the point and the shank of the hook where the hand-forged hook projected from the head of the small tuna.

それで爺様は100尋の長さの綱の餌にカジキが喰いつこうとしているのが分かったのです。

He remembered the time he had hooked one of a pair of marlin. The male fish always let the female fish feed first and the hooked fish, the female, made a wild, panic-stricken, despairing fight that soon exhausted her, and all the time the male had stayed with her, crossing the line and circling with her on the surface. He had stayed so close that the old man was afraid he would cut the line with his tail which was sharp as a scythe and almost of that size and shape. When the old man had gaffed her and clubbed her, holding the rapier bill with its sandpaper edge and clubbing her across the top of her head until her colour turned to a colour almost like the backing of mirrors, and then, with the boy’s aid, hoisted her aboard, the male fish had stayed by the side of the boat. Then, while the old man was clearing the lines and preparing the harpoon, the male fish jumped high into the air beside the boat to see where the female was and then went down deep, his lavender wings, that were his pectoral fins, spread wide and all his wide lavender stripes showing. He was beautiful, the old man remembered, and he had stayed. That was the saddest thing I ever saw with them, the old man thought. The boy was sad too and we begged her pardon and butchered her promptly. “I wish the boy was here,” he said aloud and settled himself against the rounded planks of the bow and felt the strength of the great fish through the line he held across his shoulders moving steadily toward whatever he had chosen. When once, through my treachery, it had been necessary to him to make a choice, the old man thought. His choice had been to stay in the deep dark water far out beyond all snares and traps and treacheries. My choice was to go there to find him beyond all people. Beyond all people in the world. Now we are joined together and have been since noon. And no one to help either one of us. Perhaps I should not have been a fisherman, he thought. But that was the thing that I was born for. I must surely remember to eat the tuna after it gets light. Some time before daylight something took one of the baits that were behind him. He heard the stick break and the line begin to rush out over the gunwale of the skiff. In the darkness he loosened his sheath knife and taking all the strain of the fish on his left shoulder he leaned back and cut the line against the wood of the gunwale. Then he cut the other line closest to him and in the dark made the loose ends of the reserve coils fast. He worked skillfully with the one hand and put his foot on the coils to hold them as he drew his knots tight. Now he had six reserve coils of line. There were two from each bait he had severed and the two from the bait the fish had taken and they were all connected. After it is light, he thought, I will work back to the forty-fathom bait and cut it away too and link up the reserve coils. I will have lost two hundred fathoms of good Catalan cordel and the hooks and leaders. That can be replaced. But who replaces this fish if I hook some fish and it cuts him off? I don’t know what that fish was that took the bait just now. It could have been a marlin or a broadbill or a shark. I never felt him. I had to get rid of him too fast.  

何度か躊躇った挙句カジキはついに針に掛かりましたが、魚のあまりに強い引きに爺様は釣上げられません。そして魚に引かれるままに北西に向います。夜になると爺様は雄雌のイルカが舟の周りで遊ぶのを耳にしたり、雄雌のカジキの雌だけを釣り上げたりしたことを一人で思い出したり、人知れず海の底で潜んでいた大カジキと、人に先んじてその大カジキを見つける自分とを対比して考えていると、爺様の後ろの生木が折れて綱が走り出るのが分かりました。爺様はいま舟を曳いている大魚以外の魚をあしらう余裕はないので、何が掛かったか分からない魚がかかった125尋の綱を切り落し、ついでに傍の75尋の綱をも切り落した。これで200尋分の綱を無くすことになるが、大魚を取り逃がすよりはましだと考えた。さらに40尋の綱も切り落すことにしたので、爺様はこの大魚に集中することになる。切り落した三本の綱には予備綱が40尋が2本づつ、だから今、爺様が引いている綱と合わせれば260尋の綱で大魚に対応できる。

第五章

舟にムシクイが飛んで来る。

“I am sorry I cannot hoist the sail and take you in with the small breeze that is rising . But I am with a fried.

すまないが、大魚に引っ張られていて、帆を上げることが出来ないと言っている。 そうこうしている内に魚がふらついたり、マグロの刺身をつくって食べたり、左手が攣ったり若いしがいない事を嘆いているうちに魚がその全貌を現わし、爺様はその大きさに驚愕する。

第六章

“I am not religious,” he said. “But I will say ten Our Fathers and ten Hail Marys that I should catch this fish, and I promise to make a pilgrimage to the Virgen de Cobre if I catch him. That is a promise.”

舟より2フィートも長い魚を見て、普段は不信仰の爺様も神頼みを始め「主の祈り」や「アベマリア」を唱える。そこで爺様が付け加えるのが Blessed Vergin. Play for the death of fish. であるが、これは人の死に際して、この人の全ての罪を許して天国に送ってくださいと 祈る言葉であるWonderful through he is. そして「罪なんかないいい奴なんですけど」と付け加える。この作品を書く頃、ヘミングウェイはカトリックに改宗している。爺様はコブレの教会にお参りしますともいっているが、コブレとは銅の事である。以前の銅山が閉山されたのちも教会だけが残っているが、ヘミングウェイがその教会に参列したかは定かでない。ちなみにHeil Mary はフットボールの一発逆転ロングパズです。

As the sun set he remembered, to give himself more confidence, the time in the tavern at Casablanca when he had played the hand game with the great negro from Cienfuegos who was the strongest man on the docks. They had gone one day and one night with their elbows on a chalk line on the table and their forearms straight up and their hands gripped tight. Each one was trying to force the other’s hand down onto the table. There was much betting and people went in and out of the room under the kerosene lights and he had looked at the arm and hand of the negro and at the negro’s face. They changed the referees every four hours after the first eight so that the referees could sleep. Blood came out from under the fingernails of both his and the negro’s hands and they looked each other in the eye and at their hands and forearms and the bettors went in and out of the room and sat on high chairs against the wall and watched. The walls were painted bright blue and were of wood and the lamps threw their shadows against them. The negro’s shadow was huge and it moved on the wall as the breeze moved the lamps.

夜になると爺様は若い時に腕相撲でCienfuegosから来た黒人の大男に腕相撲で勝ったことを思い出して、自信が湧いてきた。 Fine man は偉丈夫の意味で、良い人の意味ではない。  

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